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             Carbon is practically the one element, which has three types of hybridization of atomic orbitals: sp3, sp2, sp that provide atomic interaction with formation of molecular three-dimensional (volumetric), two-dimensional (planar) and one-dimensional (linear) structures. Depending on the hybridization type, the covalent bonds are realized in crystalline forms of carbon – diamond, lonsdeylite (sp3) and graphite (sp2) as well as in linear form – carbine (sp).

            All three types of bonds are realized in amorphous carbon. Considering that amorphous carbon (technical carbon, carbon black, carbon raw material) is easy enough produced from its compounds (for instance, from organic compounds by pyrolysis) but is difficult crystallized to diamond or graphite (the high pressures and temperatures are needed), there is a wide spectrum of amorphous – crystalline (turbostrait) materials appealing for their own features; the varieties of active carbon, glass carbon, pyrographite  and others are amongst them.

            In recent years the new allotropic carbon modification were revealed – fullerenes, nanotubes, cones, onions, etc. Their existence owes to formation of the bonds between carbons be deformed sp2-hybrized orbitals with the result that flat structures are capable to close into regular geometric formations – balls, cylinders, cones and into their mixed forms. Discovery of these carbon modifications, in particular fullerenes (1985) and nanotubes (1991), and their unusual properties caused the sharp interest in them by scientific community and defined the qualitative new level the development of carbon materials as well as their introduction into various spheres of practical activity.

            In particular, the new composite materials with improved working features, principally new elements for optics, electronics and optoelectronics, the more effective sorbents and catalysts, drugs and means of their address delivery in definite organs are already created. These carbon materials are used as vectors of gene engineering, medical nanoinstruments, etc.

            Along with studying recently revealed allotropic carbon modifications, the researches of known and, as seems, well studied traditional carbon materials are actively continued and developed. So, the use of materials based on polycrystalline graphite in thermostable components and blocks, chemically stable, antifriction and thickening systems and as raw for producing the artificial diamonds and nanodiamonds is extended. There is a great demand for quasimonocrystalline graphite of various degrees of purity, glass carbon, pyrographite’s in energetic.

            To carbon materials it is necessary to refer the varieties of natural coal           (hard, brown, and salty) as well as the products of hard coal conversion, foundry and pitch cokes. On the base of char-coal and natural coal, the developed industry is created for production of carbon adsorbents and catalysts which are porous materials with extremely developed specific surface. In recent years the polymeric materials (co-polymers, resins) including exhausted goods from them and waste (rubber, plastic package, etc.) are used for production of carbon adsorbents.

            In the latter half of the 20th century on the base of pitches and synthetic fibers, the fiber carbon materials were developed; they became the elements of many composite systems together with polymeric, carbon and metallic matrices. The appearance of such composites determined the progress in aircraft and cosmic area. Carbon fibers, tursts, fabrics, felt and other non-fabric products are the best reinforcement at producing the new materials designating for working under strong conditions (high temperatures, pressures, aggressive media, radioactive stresses, etc.). Recently the considerable demand appeared for low-consistent carbon materials, technical carbon/carbon black, aerogels, thermoexpanded graphite (TEG) or graphite foam. In particular, TEG is base for creation of new constructive materials which preserve the graphite properties and increase the elasticity and plasticity. The use of TEG constantly increases satisfying enormous demand for compacting and corrosion-resisting goods for energetics, transport, water and heat supply, for fireproofing and radioabsorbing covers and paints, ecology-protecting adsorbents and catalysts.

            Starting in 50th last century, when the first artificial diamonds were synthesized, the interest to this allotropic variety of carbon increases constantly. The artificial diamonds are broadly used as the best abrasives. Currently the high-pure diamond crystals and diamond films as perspective element base for optical devices, powerful lasers, semiconductor devices, etc. are synthesized.

            The great prospect for studying and using the nanostructural carbon forms was opened with syntheses and scale production of fullerenes, nanotubes and graphene. In spite of short time since moment of their discovery, the results of a large body of fundamental research witness that exactly these materials capable to give the revolutionary changes in materials technology, electronics, chemical technology, biology and medicine. That is the reason that long-term target programs in the field of chemistry and technology of simple compounds and nanostructural carbon forms exist and are already financed in USAJapanChinaRussia and countries of EC. Many scientific and industrial organizations operate under such programs.

            Ukraine has traditionally developed scientific and industrial base for intensive activity on syntheses, study and production of carbon materials (technical carbon, graphite’s, carbon-graphite materials, carbon-carbon composites, products from natural coal and carbon adsorbents, artificial diamonds and nanodiamonds, carbon filaments and fabrics, fullerenes, thermoexpanded graphite, nanotubes, nanofilaments and others). On a number of directions our country holds the priorities and existing scientific-technological developments are to be elaborate more intensively and use rationally in favor of own economy. We have all possibilities for safety of the worth place amongst leading countries of the world in sphere of creation and production of carbon   products of various purposes.

            In modern economic conditions the action of the formula “study-development-production-use” are more defined by the last link, i.e. by the user of carbon production. That is why the  successfully working economy of the country, in particular enterprises of atomic energetic, metallurgy, fuel-energetic complex and others which broadly use the materials of carbon type and interested in development and introduction of a new assortment of carbon wares, can become the source of the additional financing the studies in this sphere.

            The founding the public organization for union of scientists and specialists of carbon direction – Association “Carbon” in Ukraine – is natural and well-timed step on the road to creation, study, production and consumption of materials and wares based on carbon. Its main purpose is consolidation of activity of scientists, manufactures and users of carbon production, and sphere of the primary tasks includes:

-          dataware of the members/participants of Association;

-  making a public examination of scientific projects, programs, technical    decisions, etc.;

-          revealing and support of prior scientific directions in chemistry and technology of carbon, materials and wares on its base;

-          organization of scientific seminars, conferences, educational actions, publishing scientific transactions on carbon themes;

-          coordination of scientific and technological activity on carbon themes which is realized by individual (physical persons) and collective (institutes, enterprises, other organizations) members/participants of Association.

It is expected that Association activity will render the assistance to introduction of scientific and technological developments in practice as well as to successful realization of domestic “carbon” production not only in country, but on foreign markets as well.

Our Association invites the specialists and organizations of carbon direction to become its members and actively cooperate for performing the tasks mentioned and attaining the purposes in hand.

                                                                      

                                                                       Mykola Kartel,

President of Association “Carbon” in Ukraine,

Academician of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine

 

Our data:

Full name: Civil Organization “Association “Carbon” in Ukraine

Registration Certificate of the Ministry of Justice of UkraineN 0079-2009 Г.О.

Сertificate of State Registration: Series AO1 N 250402

Identification Code:  36546616

Official Adress: 03164, Kyiv, General Naumov Str., 17

President: Mykola T. Kartel

Vice-president: Dmytro V. Shchur

Scientific Secretary: Gennadiy P. Prikhod’ko